The National Research Council also contributed to the history of business administration In 1927. That year, the Council co-funded the 'Hawthorne Experements'. The intent of these experiments was to determine what motiviated workers. In an era where companies where changing the way they were thinking of employees, understanding worker motivation was an attempt to further increase efficiency. The study determined that workers are not only motivated by financial gain and good working conditions. It was also important to workers that they feel appreciated and were interested in their work.
As one consequence, workplace democracy (sometimes referred to as Workers' self-management ) has become both more common and advocated to a greater extent, in some places distributing all management functions among workers, each of whom takes on a portion of the work. However, these models predate any current political issue, and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy . All management embraces to some degree a democratic principle—in that in the long term, the majority of workers must support management. Otherwise, they leave to find other work or go on strike. Despite the move toward workplace democracy, command-and-control organization structures remain commonplace as de facto organization structure. Indeed, the entrenched nature of command-and-control is evident in the way that recent layoffs have been conducted with management ranks affected far less than employees at the lower levels. In some cases, management has even rewarded itself with bonuses after laying off lower-level workers.