According to Emerson, there were three spiritual problems addressed about nature for humans to solve, "What is matter? Whence is it? And Whereto?". What is matter? Matter is a phenomenon, not a substance; rather, nature is something that is experienced by humans, and grows with humans' emotions. Whence is it and Whereto? Such questions can be answered with a single answer, nature’s spirit is expressed through humans, "Therefore, that spirit, that is, the Supreme Being, does not build up nature around us, but puts it forth through us", states Emerson. Emerson clearly depicts that everything must be spiritual and moral, in which there should be goodness between nature and humans. 
Emerson anonymously published his first essay, "Nature", on September 9, 1836. A year later, on August 31, 1837, he delivered his now-famous Phi Beta Kappa address, " The American Scholar ",  then entitled "An Oration, Delivered before the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Cambridge"; it was renamed for a collection of essays (which included the first general publication of "Nature") in 1849.  Friends urged him to publish the talk, and he did so, at his own expense, in an edition of 500 copies, which sold out in a month.  In the speech, Emerson declared literary independence in the United States and urged Americans to create a writing style all their own and free from Europe.  James Russell Lowell , who was a student at Harvard at the time, called it "an event without former parallel on our literary annals".  Another member of the audience, Reverend John Pierce, called it "an apparently incoherent and unintelligible address".