The interpretation of Islam promoted by this funding was the strict, conservative Saudi-based Wahhabism or Salafism . In its harshest form it preached that Muslims should not only "always oppose" infidels "in every way," but "hate them for their religion ... for Allah's sake," that democracy "is responsible for all the horrible wars of the 20th century," that Shia and other non-Wahhabi Muslims were infidels , etc.  While this effort has by no means converted all, or even most Muslims to the Wahhabist interpretation of Islam, it has done much to overwhelm more moderate local interpretations, and has set the Saudi-interpretation of Islam as the "gold standard" of religion in minds of some or many Muslims. 
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v. Pakenham, T. Scramble for Africa. London: Abacus
vi. Ajamiyy is an Arabic word meaning “non-Arabic”. In a West African context, “Ajami” is used in particular to refer to the writing of non-Arabic languages in Arabic characters. This practice is attested in practically all Muslim areas of West Africa, including at least Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Ghana, Nigeria, and Cameroon. It continues to the present despite being propagated almost exclusively through traditional religious instruction, usually without government funding or recognition; in this sense, it might be called a non-governmental literacy, as opposed to literacy whose norms are passed on through a government-organised school system. See: https://-aegyptologie-/archiv/2010/2957
vii. Chtatou, M. 1992. Using Arabic Script in the Writing of the Languages of Moslem People of , Morocco:Institute of African Studies Publicatins.
viii. Tidjane or Tijanniyah is a Sufi religious lodge widely spread in West Africa. The founder of this important order Sīdī ‘Aḥmad al-Tijānī (1737–1815), who was born in Aïn Madhi, present-day Algeria and died in Fes, Morocco, founded the Tijānī order in the 1780s—sources vary as to the exact date between 1781 and 1784. Tijānīs speaking for the poor, reacted against the conservative, hierarchical Qadiriyyah brotherhood then dominant, focusing on social reform and grass-roots Islamic revival. See: https:///wiki/Tijaniyyah
ix. The different historical periods of the Ottoman Empire are as follows: Rise (1299-1453), Growth (1453-1683), Stagnation and reform (1683-1827), Decline and modernization (1828-1908) and Defeat and dissolution (1908-1922)
x. “The Balfour Declaration”. Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2013. Yapp, . (1 September 1987). The Making of the Modern Near East 1792–1923. Harlow, England: Longman. p. 290. ISBN 978-0-582-49380-3.
xi. The New York Times of September 23, 1990
xii. is a religious movement or branch of Sunni Islam. It has been variously described as “ultraconservative”, “austere”, “fundamentalist”, “puritanical” (or “puritan”) and as an Islamic “reform movement” to restore “pure monotheistic worship” (tawhid) by scholars and advocates, and as an “extremist pseudo-Sunni movement” by opponents. Adherents often object to the term Wahhabi or Wahhabism as derogatory, and prefer to be called Salafi or muwahhid.
It is a Muslim sect founded by Abdul Wahhab (1703-1792), known for its strict observance of the Koran andflourishing mainly in Arabia.